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Rural Mental Wellness Toolkit
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All of these terms and definitions were developed or consulted on by Jenn Fane, PHD, Director of Education and the staff and instructors at the Learning Disability Society (LDS), and the team at Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital
To view definitions please click on the “name” or the “+” sign on any given line. It will expand for you to read the full definition and close when you click on another one. At any time you may scroll to the top of window click the white “X” in the upper right hand corner of the “pop up” window to return the page you were originally on.
Learning Disability (LD)
A number of brain-based disorders that affect learning by impacting an individual’s ability to acquire, organise, retain, understand, or use verbal and non-verbal information. Learning disabilities (LDs) affect learning in individuals who otherwise demonstrate at least average abilities essential for thinking and/or reasoning. A person with a LD may choose to refer to themselves as an individual with a learning disability or a learning difference.
Learning Difference (LD)
Many people prefer to use the term learning difference instead of learning disability because they feel that learning disability focuses on weaknesses, while “learning difference” acknowledges that some individuals simply learn differently. Individuals with learning differences experience significant challenges in specific areas of learning but may also have other areas of learning where they excel. Both the term Learning Disability and Learning Difference are commonly referred to by the acronym LD.
A designation is the acknowledgement that an individual has a disability (such as a learning disability) and that they require extra support to be successful in their learning or day-to-day activities. In BC, a student with a diagnosed learning disability is given a Q designation by the Ministry of Education. This designation legally entitles the student to extra support at school and the development of an Individualised Education Plan (IEP).
Individualised Education Plan (IEP)
A document created by a student’s school that outlines the specific learning needs, supports, and accommodations of a student with a learning disability or other special need. An IEP is created through consultation with the student’s teacher, resource teacher, parent/guardian(s), and other specialists and professionals that the student is working with. An IEP is updated annually to ensure that the student has the support and accommodations they need to be successful at school as they age. Public Universities and Colleges in Canada are also required to provide accommodations for students with specific learning needs, these documents are often called “Access Plans” in post-secondary education, but the name of the document varies depending on the institution
Accommodation for Learning
An accommodation for learning is a change to learning and school requirements that are currently a barrier to a student’s success. For example, some students may be given extra time to take a test or do a verbal presentation rather than writing an essay because their learning difference makes it unnecessarily difficult for them to show their understanding through a timed test or written output. Accommodations for learning are documented in a students Individualised Education Plan (IEP) in elementary or secondary schools, or Access Plan in postsecondary education
Includes equipment and software used to help individuals with disabilities overcome barriers to participate in education settings, the workforce and daily life. Examples of assistive technology include text-to-speech software for individuals with written output or vision or fine motor challenges, closed captioning for deaf or hard of hearing individuals, or mobility aids for individuals with physical disabilities. Assistive technology can be integrated into schools, educational programming and workplaces of individuals with disabilities to facilitate the participation of a wide range of individuals and remove barriers for success
A specific brain-based learning disability that makes reading and related language based processing skills more difficult. An individual with dyslexia encounters significant challenges reading fluently and accurately and retrieving spoken words easily. A person with dyslexia may refer to themselves as having dyslexia or being dyslexic.
A specific brain-based learning disability that makes producing writing more difficult. An individual with dysgraphia encounters significant challenges with spelling, handwriting and typing
A specific brain-based learning disability that makes learning, understanding, and doing math more difficult. An individual with dyscalculia encounters significant challenges with numeracy based activities such as recognising and remembering numbers and number patterns, estimating time, making change, and basic math operations.
Non-verbal learning disorders
A brain-based learning disability that impacts non-verbal skills related to learning such as noticing visual and social patterns, executive functioning and organisational skills, and learning concepts related to language and math. An individual with a non-verbal learning disorder may encounter significant challenges with organising their ideas, routines, or belongings, reading social cues, or moving safely through physical space.
Oral/Written Language Disorders & Reading Comprehension Deficits
A brain-based learning disability that impacts the way an individual processes written or spoken language. An individual with this learning disorder may have trouble recognising words, understanding their meaning and how to apply the words in a sentence. They may also have trouble using language orally and finding the right word to express themselves.
The term neurodiversity reflects a viewpoint that brain differences are normal variations within human populations, not a deficit or something to be ‘fixed’. Brain-based differences, such as Autism, ADHD, and learning differences are often seen as disorders, which does not recognise the rich differences, abilities, and strengths that individuals with brain-based differences have. To reflect the span of brain-based diversity, individuals can be classified as neurodiverse (having a brain-based thinking or learning difference) or neurotypical (not having a brain-based learning difference).
Many people who have learning and thinking differences (such as Autism, ADHD, and learning disabilities) prefer to use the term neurodiverse to refer to themselves as a way of reducing stigma and highlighting that people with differences simply experience and interact with the world in unique ways.
Individuals who do not have a thinking or learning difference can be referred to as neurotypical. The use of the word neurotypical signifies that there are significant variations in thinking and learning within any population, and that having strength-based, person first labels for everyone is a more inclusive way to understand differences rather than only labelling individuals with differences.
In the context of disability, ableism is a bias that describes the expectation that people with disabilities should have to adjust to the “nondisabled” world and that this is a “normal” state, rather than seeing “normal” as a world where everyone can participate and belong. Ableism sees people with disabilities as inferior to others. The term ableism is the equivalent of terms such as “sexism,” “racism,” and “homophobia.”
Describes instances of stigma against people with disabilities that are particularly heinous and violent. In a criminal justice context, disability hate refers to any criminal act (such as assault, harassment, theft, murder, genocide, etc.) where the perpetrator’s motive relates to a person’s disability.
Describes the fact that the world is full of a wide range of different human abilities that manifest differently in different people.
In the context of disability, exclusion happens when a person with a disability is ignored or not given a chance to participate in something that they should be able to participate in.
In the context of disability, inclusion means taking action to involve and welcome people with disabilities in everyday activities, and ensuring they have ways to participate that accommodate their needs.
Describes the fact that there are many overlapping identities and related systems of discrimination (such as ableism, racism, sexism,and classism) that combine, overlap, and intersect in the experiences of marginalised people or groups.
A disability that is not visible to others. Learning disabilities, brain injuries, and mental illnesses are some examples.
Any condition or impairment of the body and/or mind that makes it more difficult for the person with the condition to do certain activities connected to their condition or impairment and interact with the world around them. Disabilities can be visible and/or invisible, physical and/or mental.
A condition or impairment that limits one or more basic physical activities for an individual (i.e. walking, climbing stairs, reaching, carrying, or lifting). These limitations can impact the person in their performance tasks of daily living. Physical disabilities differ greatly from individual to individual.
All of the presenting diagnostic definitions are derived from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) created by the American Psychiatric Association.
These terms and definitions were written by Stigma-Free Society interns and Adler University psychology students, Alensia Ma and Brianna Kunder, and reviewed by Dr. Shimi Kang & Dolphin Kids: Future-ready Leaders.
American Psychological Association Psychologist locator: Useful search engine to find licensed psychologists by city or zipcode.
Psychology Today Find a Therapist: Broad search engine for finding counsellors, therapists, psychologists, treatment centers and support groups.
Everyone has mental health, just like everyone has physical health. In the course of one’s lifetime, they may not experience mental illness, but they will experience struggles and difficulties, which will challenge their mental health. Mental health is essentially one’s mental well-being involving one’s emotions, thoughts and feelings, the ability to solve problems and overcome difficulties.
Mental illness is different from mental health because it affects the way individual’s think, feel, behave, and interact with others. The symptoms of mental illness impact one’s life on a much more substantial level that can impede one’s daily functioning and can be chronic, lasting a lifetime.
Bipolar disorder is a category that includes three different diagnoses under one umbrella: bipolar I, bipolar II, and cyclothymic disorder. Bipolar disorder is a brain disorder that causes changes in a person’s mood, energy, and ability to function. People with bipolar disorder experience intense emotional states that typically occur distinctly, ranging from days to weeks, called mood episodes. These mood episodes are characterized as being manic/hypomanic (abnormally happy or irritable mood) or depressive (sad mood). Generally, people with bipolar disorder also experience neutral moods. When treated, people with bipolar disorder can live fulfilling and productive lives.
Depression, also known as major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mood disorder in which those who suffer experience persistent feelings of sadness and hopelessness and tend to lose interest in activities they previously enjoyed.
The development (onset) of major depressive disorder is typically puberty. It is more common for females to experience than males. It is also important to address one’s feelings of severe sadness and hopelessness as the risk of suicide is prominent with this disorder.
Anxiety is an adaptive response to stress in our environment. Anxiety disorders differ from typical feelings of nervousness or anxiousness to involve excessive fear, worry, or anxiety. It is the most common mental illness that can also include other types of anxiety, such as generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and more. Anxiety disorders are manageable and treatable.
An anxiety disorder can begin as early as 1 year of age, though is more commonly seen in school-age children, with nearly 1 in 3 adolescents (13-18) experiencing an anxiety disorder.
Feeding and Eating Disorders:
A persistent disturbance of eating or eating-related behaviour that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and significantly impairs physical health or psychological, behavioural, and social functioning. Eating disorders are ranked the third most common chronic illness in adolescent females.
Substance and Addiction:
Substance-related disorders involve 10 separate classes of drugs: alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids, sedatives, hypnotics, stimulants, tobacco, and others (unknown substances). All drugs that are taken in excess similarly activate the brain reward system, which produces feelings of pleasure or euphoria. Whenever this reward system is activated, our brain notes that something is happening that should be repeated because it is enjoyable. This is the addictive property drugs hold onto the brain.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD):
ADHD is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders typically diagnosed in childhood. The two pillars of ADHD are Inattention and Hyperactivity. Inattention may look like wandering off task, having difficulty staying focused, or inability to stay organized. Hyperactivity may look like excessive motor activity, such as excessive fidgeting, tapping, restlessness, or talkativeness when it is not appropriate. ADHD interferes with one’s functioning and development such as school performance and academic achievement, which can have a substantial impact on the child and their family
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD):
OCD is to have a tendency towards excessive orderliness, perfectionism, and/or great attention to detail characterized by obsessions and/or compulsions. Obsessions are recurrent, persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are perhaps unwanted. Compulsions are repetitive behaviours or mental acts that are done in response to the obsession, to prevent it from happening, or according to the rules one has made that they apply rigidly to avoid the obsession. Not performing these behaviours leads to great distress.
Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders:
Trauma is a lasting response to a stressful event. Experiencing a traumatic event can have a lasting impact on an individual’s sense of self, safety, and ability to regulate emotions. Psychological distress following a traumatic event can also look a lot like anxiety. It is not uncommon for a traumatic or anxious response to look alike.
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder and is attributed to an individual if they have two or more core symptoms; delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking and/or speech. The other core symptoms are significantly disorganized or abnormal motor behaviour, and negative symptoms. Delusions are fixed beliefs that are resistant to change despite conflicting evidence. For example, this might be a strong belief that someone is going to be harmed by another individual, despite there being no evidence of that being true. This is defined as a specific delusion called a persecutory delusion, which is the most common. Hallucinations are experiences that occur without an external stimulus (outside reason or cause). They are vivid and clear, like a voice speaking to you which is not just one’s individual inner thoughts; this is called an auditory hallucination. Disorganized thinking and speech can be quite sporadic in nature, whether a person jumps from idea to idea, or their ideas are completely unrelated, or their words or sentences just do not make sense. Disorganized or abnormal motor behaviour can be observed as a childlike “silliness” to unpredictable agitation. It can be seen as odd posture, excessive motor activity, staring, and more. Negative symptoms are diminished emotional expression seen in one’s face, eye contact, or delivery of speech and avolition which is a decrease in motivated self-driven activities such as sitting for long periods of time without interest in participating in work, school, or social activities
Therapy is generally defined as treatment for an injury, disability or illness with psychotherapy being specific to treatment of mental health conditions. Psychotherapy, or talk therapy, can be done by many different professionals ranging from social workers to psychiatrists. Therapy can be beneficial to all types of people, and helpful in many different situations. It can range in intensity and be short or long term. Mental health professionals can have different areas of specialty and work under one or a combination of different “theories”. In all cases, the goal is to help people make sense of their emotions and thoughts to live more happy, productive and healthy lives.
A professional, usually with a master’s degree in social work, who helps individuals in disadvantaged situations. They can provide some counselling but are usually not trained to use psychotherapy theories. Instead, social workers usually help clients attain resources they need to change their circumstances. Social workers are generally involved in government or community services and specialize in family, child and school issues. They generally assist those with limited resources, victims of abuse, families adjusting to a child with mental health struggles, or families adjusting to a member who is differently abled.
A professional, with a master’s degree in counselling specific psychology, trained in psychotherapy. Those seeking out counselling range from dealing with trauma, anxiety, depression or just needing some extra support during stressful life events such as mourning a lost one or divorce. Anyone needing some extra support, guidance, a safe place to express their feelings or looking for something potentially long term should consider counselling.
A professional, with a doctorate degree in psychology, trained in psychotherapy who is also able to assign a diagnosis. Psychologists are able to offer support to those with symptoms of a suspected mental disorder and those with more severe mental health struggles looking for a treatment plan more catered to their diagnosis.
A professional, with a medical degree, trained in psychotherapy. They are able to assign a diagnosis, prescribe medication and other medical treatments. Those with mental health struggles such as severe depression or schizophrenia where medication is required should seek out a psychiatrist. Even those with moderate depression and anxiety who have been prescribed drugs by their general practitioner can benefit from a psychiatric consultation as they often have a more comprehensive understanding of disorders and their effective treatments. In Canada a referral from your doctor is needed to book an appointment with a licensed psychiatrist.
The guidelines, themes and general attitudes that counsellors, psychologists and psychiatrists use to guide their treatment method. This is the framework they use to define client/counsellor relationship, intervention methods and the overall mood of the session. Different theories will appeal to different people and be more useful for different challenges. Don’t be afraid to try out a few different types until you find one that works best for you!
These theories are more long term and focused on the individuals and their life experience. They tend to attempt to treat the person as a whole and not just specific problems, and this generally leads to improvements in self-awareness. A few of the most common are listed below.
The original theory of talk therapy developed by Freud. Focuses on making sense of the subconscious and the past. A more intensive form of psychodynamic therapy characterized by a close working partnership between therapist and patient.
Person centered therapy:
Created by Carl Rogers, this holistic method uses empathy to help motivate people to find solutions to their problems themselves.
This theory helps people find meaning in their life and overcome the fear of death through self-determination.
This theory is goal oriented and works to help people find success , connectedness with others, and a sense of belonging in the world
Behavioral and Problem-Based Theories:
These theories tend to be more short term and focus on specific behaviors or symptoms that are causing the most issues. A few of the most well known are listed below
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT):
One of the most popular of the behavioral theories, this method focuses on identifying unhealthy ways of thinking and finding a healthier substitute. This has been shown to be very effective for those suffering from anxiety, depression, trauma related disorders, eating disorders and addiction.
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT):
One of the newest forms of therapy, this was developed specifically to help treat those with borderline personality disorder. It focuses on helping people find acceptance as well as managing their emotions. This is also very effective in those dealing with other personality disorders, addiction, suicidal ideation and post-traumatic stress disorder.
This type of therapy is used specifically for younger children and uses games, toys and different forms of “play” to help children express confusing emotions, feelings or life events
Focuses on helping families communicate and deal with major conflicts that are affecting the household.
Focuses on helping people in relationships settle differences, improve communication and find ways to have a more content life together.
Generally led by a therapist, this type of therapy will be a small group of those suffering from similar mental health struggles who come together to find support from each other as well as the therapist. This is common for those suffering from eating disorders, addiction and is used often in DBT.